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In this research article, we shall study the administration and trial of the offence by Criminal court established under Cr.P.C 1898 and other laws in Pakistan and what are principals of administration of these criminal courts? We shall also study types of administrative agencies and how these investigating agencies provide assistance the courts in administration of criminal justice.
Principal of Administration
The section 5 criminal procedure Code (1898) has enunciated the administration and trial of offence falling penal provisions of PPC shall be investigated and enquired and other dealt according to the provisions of the criminal procedure Code but subject to any other enactment time being in force which prescribed special form of procedure for regulation, manner or place of trial investigation and trial of offences.
1. Territorial Jurisdiction
All criminal court and investigating agency established under Cr.P.C or special laws have their territorial jurisdiction for administration of criminal justice. Under subsection 1 of section 7 of Cr.P.C. each province shall consist of sessions divisions; every session division shall for the purpose of this code, the section 7 Cr.P.C relates to territorial division.         It provides that each province shall consist of session division, and every session division shall be for purpose of code is a district or consist of districts. It is the provincial which is empowered to alter the limits or number of each divisions and district. According to provisions, it is the provincial government to divide any districts or make any portion of any such district a subdivision and may alter the limitation of any such-division.
If in the opinion of a court taking cognizance of the offence, and the case appears to be one in which, according to the fourth column, a warrant to be issued in first instance,  a causing to be brought or to bear at certain has no jurisdiction some other having the jurisdiction. It provide that each province shall be consist of session divisions and every session division shall for purpose of the code a district or consist of districts. It is the province government which is empowered to alter the limitation or number of such divisions and districts. According to section 8 it is for the provincial to divide any district into sub-divisions or make any portion of any such district a sub division, and may alter the limit of any sub division.
2. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of subject matter is often vested on that subject where special investigating agency or special court is constituted for administration of these offences.  The criminal court and  Beats By Dre I Beats investigating agency exercise their jurisdiction on particular subject matter that jurisdiction is derived from special law enforceable in Pakistan.
Criminal Courts for Administration
There are two types of courts in Pakistan, first established under Cr.P.C and others are established by special enactment.
1. The court established under Code of Criminal Procedure
Chapter II of the code of criminal procedure 1898 deals with constitution and power of trial courts and offences committed in penal code and other laws. The section 6 has defined the criminal court for purpose of prosecution of the offences. The section has provided the three classes of the courts for the purpose of prosecution of the offences. These court act and prosecute the offence under their defied jurisdiction. The class of courts includes the court of magistrate, session and High Court for the purpose of administration of criminal justice. The power has been given the established to try offence under penal court and other offences which ahs not been defined in penal provision but in other provision of laws.
2. The court established under provision of special laws
There are types of court for the purpose prosecution not falling Pakistan penal Code 1860,Monster Beats Australia, and these courts are established the federal or provincial legislation establish these court for the purpose of the  prosecution of special offence penalized under special laws time being in force.There type of court act under special procedure described in special laws. The purpose of the administration and providing procedure for these prosecutions of these offences are  that these offences are promulgated for special and often the code of Criminal procedure is inadequate to meet the requirement for these courts.
Types of Criminal Courts established under Cr.P.C
Under section of criminal procedure code, besides the high court and court session under any law other than this code for time being in force, there shall be two classes of the courts in Pakistan.
1. District Magistrate
Under section 10 of Cr.P.C of 1898, the provincial government shall appoint district magistrate and provincial government shall also appoint additional district magistrate to exercise jurisdiction in one or more districts,Cheap Beats Audio Headphones, and such additional district magistrate shall have or any of the powers of district magistrate under this code or under any other law for time being in force, as the provincial government shall direct.  The subsection 1 of section 12 of Cr.P.C of 1898 may appoint as many persons as it think fir to be may time to time define the local areas within which persons may exercise all or any of the powers within which they may respectively be invested under the code.
Under sub section 1 of section 14 of Cr.P.C. of 1898, The provincial government may on the recommendation of the high court, confer upon any person  Monster Beats Lady Gaga all or any of the powers conferred or conferrable by or under this code on a judicial magistrate in respect to particular cases or to a particular classes of cases or in regard to case generally in local areas.  As defined in such magistrate shall be called special judicial magistrate and shall be appointed for such terms as the provincial government may, in consultation with high court, general or special order, direct.
2. Court of Session
Under section 9 of Cr.P.C of 1898, the provincial government shall establish a court of session for every session division and appoint a judge of such court and also one of more session division to exercise jurisdiction in one of more courts.
The provincial government is empowered to establish a court of session for every session division and also appoint judge of such court. The Subsection 3 of section 9 empowers the provincial government to make appointment of additional session judge and to exercise jurisdiction in one or make such courts.
The session judgment is deem to superior to additional session but as regard with power of both are same. Only limit to the power of the assistant session judge is that assistant session judge can pass the death sentence or imprisonment for more that seven years as cited in 1998 P.Cr.L.J. 572.
3. High Court
The high has been established under Articles of Constitution of Pakistan and also have been given power of trial and appeal under Cr.P.C 1898. In addition to these power confirmed under Cr.P.C, the High Court has been confirmed special powers under articles of Constitution of Pakistan 1973 for administration of Criminal justice.
Power of the criminal Courts for administrate
The jurisdiction of every statue to try offence is derived from the penal statute; either that statute establishes court or penal provisions.
1. Offence falling under penal code
Under section 28 of Cr.P.C of 1898, all offence provided in penal statutes shall be tried by magistrate, session and high courts and other court which has mentioned in eighth column of the second schedule to be triable.  Magistrate is not barred from sending the case to session for trial even if he has commenced trial by recording evidence. Legislature has contemplated that magistrate should not only send cases for trial which are exclusively triable by court of session or high Court but also cases which in opinion of magistrate should or ought to be tried by such court.
It is essential that that offence should be shown to be triable by court concerned. Offence not shown in schedule to be triable by magistrate, triable by magistrate is without jurisdiction, 1972 P.Cr.L.J 233. If the offence is triable by magistrate, the session judge can transfer the case from court of magistrate to itself merely because of want of jurisdiction as decided in  Custom Beats By Dre PLD 1966  Monster Beats China SC 589.
2. Offences falling in other laws
Under subjection 1 of section 29 of Cr.P.C of 1898,Beats By Dr. Dre In-ear Headphones From Monster, subject to any other law for time being in enforce, when any court which is mentioned above in this behalf in such law be tried by such court. Under subjection 2 of section 29 of Cr.P.C of 1898, when no offence shall not to be tried by any court, it shall to be tried by High Court.
A magistrate appointed under the code does not cease to be such a magistrate merely because he has been given certain special or additional power under special statute. Therefore, an appeal under section 408 of the code is available to a person convicted or trial by first class magistrate appointed under the code of code of criminal procedure unless the special statute which has created the offence has made express provision barring the appeal as cited in PLD 1970 Decca 260.
Administrative power of PunishmentHere is brief description of powers have vested on various for passing sentence orders.
1. Sentence which are to be passed session and High Court
Under subsection 1 of section 31 of Cr.P.C 1898, a high court may pass any sentence authorized by law. Under subsection 2, session Judge or additional session judge may pass any sentence authorized by law; but any sentence of death passed by any such judge shall be subject to confirmation by high Court. Under subsection 3 of section 31 of Cr.P.C. of 1898, Assistance session is not authorized to pass the death sentence or imprisonment for term exceeding seven years.
2. Sentence which magistrate may pass
Under subsection 1 of section 32, the court of magistrate may pass the following sentences namely, the Court of Magistrate of first can pass the imprisonment of description of term not exceeding three such solitary confinements as they are authorized by law and fine not exceeding fifteen thousands rupees and Arsh whipping,Dr Dre Headphones Monster Beats, the Court magistrate of second may pass order of imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year including such solitary confinement as is authorized by law; and Fine not exceeding five thousand. The court of Magistrate of third class for may pass order of imprisonment for term not exceeding one month and fine not exceeding thousand rupees. The code of criminal procedure having first enumerating the courts by which different offence could be tried has proceeded to define the limits of sentence which the various courts can pass. The limits provided in these sections show the maximum sentence which a court can pass, they have nothing to do with maximum penalty provided for a offence.
Administrative Agencies
1. The establishment of administrative agencies under Code of Criminal Procedure 1898There are two types of
Agencies are working in Pakistan for administration and of criminal justice, first is local police which has its enactment which led to established for prosecution. The Prosecution of this offence has established whose function and administrative procedure has been defined in Code of Criminal Procedure 1898.
2. The establishment of investigating agencies under other laws
The other types of investigating and administrative agencies are  Beats By Dre Australia established under special law for prosecution of offences falling provisions of special laws for times being in force.These agencies having their procedure being defined in special enactment,Monster Beats Tour With Controltalk, like the Federal Investigating agency has its own investigating and administrative agency for the purpose of prosecution of the offence.  Beats My Dre FIA have own administrative power and jurisdiction over the defined subjects.
The administrative power of investigating agency established under Cr.P.C 1898
The police have been established under the Cr.P.C provisions for the purposes investigation of the crimes, and various administrative functions are performed by police for end of criminal administration.
1. Prevention
The section 150 of Cr.P.C 1898 has made it compulsory on part of police to prevent the commission or omission of offence with best of his abilities. The prevention of the offences shall to be prevented when the communication of the offence has made to the police, they are immediately obliged to communicate it has police officer for the purpose of adopting prevention measures for it. The police shall adopt methods of the prevention the crime by arresting that person where no other method is available for the same purpose.
2. Investigation
The section 156 of Cr.P.C. is related with investigating procedure of police when any information is made relating to the commission of the cognizable or non-cognizable offence is orally or in writing the officer in charge of a police shall put down into the record book for future narrating gist of the information which has made to him. The police officer in whose jurisdiction the commission of cognizable offence has taken place will inquire and investigate the offence, but however the subsection 1 and 2 section 155 of Cr.P.C. has made proviso that In the case of non-cognizable offence,Monster Beats By Dr Dre Headphone, he has to communicate to Magistrate for seeking permission for further investigations. The section 157 of Cr.P.C relates with the procedure where  commission of cognizable offence are suspected, the police officer is obliged to conduct local investigation into fact and circumstances offences on the spot.
3. Search
The police can exercise their power of search under the section 165 of Cr.P.C. 1898, where the reasonable grounds are available which cause the police to investigate any matter which is falling in the jurisdiction, they can make search purpose of making investigation but the limit to make investigation has been put under Bankers Book Evidence Act 1891.
4. Arrest
Under the section 46 of Cr.P.C. 1898, the police making arrest of person are made for purpose preventing that person from committing offence or putting that person in custody of police for the alleged committing of offences. The section 47 of Cr.P.C. says that where the arrest is essential for the purpose of the making arrest of that person, they can make search of the premises where the person supposed have take abode or hiding himself.
5. Framing of charges
The section 221 of Cr.P.C 1898 is related with the framing of the charges, police frames the charges of the offence which the accused has committed; these describe the particulars of the offence which has been committed. There are many other formalities of the law which is required to be fulfilled in as defined Cr.P.C provisions.
6. Recording of statement and evidence
The police officer making an investigation under this chapter may, by order in writing , requires the attendance before such as the provisional government may prescribe in order, such officer may examine the orally any such person supposed to be acquainted with fact of the case. Under The section 161 of Cr.P.C 1898, the person accused or acquainted with fact is bound to give all answer of all questions which are asked by the police. The police officer may reduce into writing such statement which has made by witness in course of examination by police officer.
Summary
We have studied the administration and trial of the offence by Criminal court established under Cr.P.C 1898 and other laws in Pakistan and the basic principal of administration is territorial and subject matter division of jurisdiction of various criminal courts and investigating agencies.  There are two types of court first established under Cr.P.C; other are constituted under other laws. There are also two major investigating agencies are in Pakistan for purpose administration of criminal justice. The procedure of investigation is Police is made according to Cr.P.C provisions and FIA administrate crime according to FIA Act.
The writer is an advocate of High Court and practicing immigration and corporate laws in Pakistan since September 2001. He is a self employed and pioneer in research on electronic commerce taxation in Pakistan. His articles were published widely in the critical areas of cyber crimes, electronic commerce, e-taxation and various other topics. He wrote LL.M thesis on titled “Legislation of electronic commerce taxation in Pakistan” in which he provided comprehensive legal proposals for statutory reconstruction of tax laws for purpose of imposition of taxation on e-business in Pakistan. Currently he is conducting is research on topic ‘Electronic commerce taxation: emerging legal issues of digital evidence’.
Author can be contacted by adil.waseem@lawyer.com.

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